Mohamed Morsi (born 8 August 1951) is an Egyptian politician who served as the fifth President of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when he was removed by Field Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi after the June 2013 Egyptian protests and the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. He was the first democratically elected head of state in Egyptian history.
Mohamed Morsi was educated in Egyptian public schools and universities; he was later granted a scholarship from the Egyptian government to prepare for a Ph.D. degree in the United States. Morsi was a Member of Parliament in the People's Assembly of Egypt from 2000 to 2005, and a leading member in the Muslim Brotherhood. He became Chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) when it was founded by the Muslim Brotherhood in the wake of the 2011 Egyptian revolution after escaping from prison. He stood as the FJP's candidate for the May–June 2012 presidential election. Morsi's victory in the presidential election was announced on 24 June 2012 after he won the run-off election, winning 51.7 percent of the vote against Ahmed Shafik, deposed leader Hosni Mubarak's last prime minister.
As president, Morsi granted himself unlimited powers and the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts, stating that he would protect the nation from the Mubarak-era power structure, which he called "remnants of the old regime" (Arabic: فلول, ALA-LC: fulūl) In late November, he issued an Islamist-backed draft constitution and called for a referendum, an act that his opponents called an "Islamist coup". These issues, along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators, brought hundreds of thousands of protesters to the streets in the 2012 Egyptian protests.
On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, which saw protesters calling for the president's resignation. In response to the events, Morsi was given a 48-hour ultimatum by the military to meet their demands and to resolve political differences, or else they would intervene by "implementing their own road map" for the country. He was unseated on 3 July by a military coup council consisting of Defense Minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei, the Grand Imam of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, and Coptic Pope Tawadros II. The military suspended the constitution, established a new administration headed by the chief justice, and initiated a "brutal" crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood.
On 1 September 2013, prosecutors referred Morsi to trial on charges of inciting deadly violence. He also faced trial for incitement to murder, espionage and conspiracy to commit acts of terrorism. He was sentenced to 20 years in prison, but acquitted of murder, on 21 April 2015. On 16 May 2015 he was sentenced to death by an Egyptian court for his role in the Wadi el-Natrun prison break during the 2011 revolution, although the court will pronounce its final decision on 2 June. However, Islamists have warned of a backlash on the death sentence of Morsi.